Prevention and Treatment of Pressure Ulcers: Clinical Practice Guideline
Prevention and Treatment of Pressure Ulcers: Clinical Practice Guideline is the result of a collaborative effort among the:
- National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP),
- European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP), and the
- Pan Pacific Pressure Injury Alliance (PPPIA), consisting of the:
The guideline was developed using a rigorous scientific methodology to appraise available research and make 575 evidence-based recommendations. In this second edition, a consensus voting process (GRADE) was used to assign strengths of recommendation that indicate the extent to which one can be confident that adherence to a recommendation will do more good than harm, intended to assist the health professional to prioritize interventions.
This second edition of the guideline combines prevention and treatment recommendations in one expanded guideline. This edition includes newly added sections on emerging fields of interest including:
- prevention and treatment of biofilms,
- prophylactic dressings,
- microclimate control,
- medical-device related pressure ulcers,
- prevention and management of heel pressure ulcers and,
- low friction fabrics.
The guideline includes updated recommendations and/or research summaries for the following pressure ulcer topics:
- prevalence and incidence;
- risk assessment;
- skin and tissue assessment;
- preventive skin care;
- prophylactic dressings;
- microclimate control;
- fabrics and textiles;
- repositioning and early mobilization;
- support surfaces;
- medical device related pressure ulcers;
- pressure ulcer classification;
- wound assessment;
- monitoring of healing;
- pain assessment and treatment;
- wound dressings (including growth factors and biological wound dressings);
- assessment and treatment of infection and biofilms;
- biophysical agents (e.g. electrical stimulation, negative pressure wound therapy, electromagnetic field treatment);
- and surgery.
Guideline support documents and permissions for reproduction and translated versions are available.